I believe you are familiar with the Torrijos-Carter T r e a t i e s , even though you may not r e c o g n i z e the name. Many United States c i t i z e n s were opposed to the second treaty. They felt that this was tantamount to giving Alaska back to Russia, or giving the Louisiana Purchase back to France.
On September 1, 1513, Vasco Núñez de Balboa led a group of 190 Spaniards and approximately 1,000 local Indians south from Santa María la Antigua del Darién across the Isthmus of Panama. In late September he sighted the Pacific Ocean from a peak. Four days later Balboa and his men reached the shore of the ocean and
he claimed it and all lands that touched it for Spain. Almost immediately (in historical terms) a search began for a natural waterway connecting the Atlantic and Pacific
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, who was also Charles I of Spain, ordered the Panama regional governor to survey a route to the…
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